In our previous topics we have been sharing with useful tips about the initial parts of the research article. In this issue you will be able to find the effective suggestions upon creating the opening section of the article’s text – Introduction.
Introduction as well as an abstract should catch the interest of readers to your investigation. In this part you accent the goal of the research, emphasizes why this research has been conducted and provide links between your study and data obtained previously by other authors in your field. In the Introduction you should precisely point out the thesis you want to agree or controvert [2, 8]. You should represent the relevancy of your outputs, its value for your scientific topic and in the end intrigue the reader to further studying of your article.
The basis of each Introduction is the information above the topic of the article obtained earlier by other scientists. That’s why before sitting to the table to write the Introduction you should carry out literature analyses in the theme, other words, collect and systematize knowledges upon your issue [8, 6].
Generally the Introduction is made of clear sections [3, 4]. They may differ, from one field to another, but certain lines usually are presented in this part.
- Start by specifying the general information from the field you are carrying out the research.
- Highlight the gap of notion in the literature concerned with your study.
- Show how your investigation feels this lack.
Onward we consider several main steps of creating the Introduction with examples. You may use them as the plan in the further work upon writing this part.
The first step
Present the subject as well as the significance of your investigation, how it connected with other outputs. This is the most broad and hard step during writing the Introduction. Outline the issue of your study, elucidate it to the readers who may be not the narrow specialists in the area .
In the first lines you should name objective of the research. As a rule it is the clue words from the title . For example,
“Snack pumpkin product is the seed of Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita moschata.”
Presented tip will be useful in natural sciences otherwise in the social and humanitarian sciences you have more opportunity to the creativity. There you may open the article with a discussion about “the meaning of a poem, painting, philosophical definition or political issue” or start using “a stimulating or dramatic quote, anecdote, analogy, paradox, or question”, as Jim Hesson explains in the article ‘How to Write the Introduction to a Research Paper’ .
Then in the next sentences or paragraphs emphasize and identify what was done by the other authors in your topic. Specifically provide a literature survey of the problem you investigated during which highlight valuable characteristics of the issue for practical and theoretical purposes .
“Seeds not only contain snack food but are also sources for food raw materials. Turkey produces about 42 181 tons Snack pumpkin in 628 441 hectares . Pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo L.) is high in oil, protein, and total unsaturated fatty acids and provides an important source of nutrition . Snack pumpkin showed rice produce both area and quantity.”
“The Effects of Different Plant Activators on Protein, Lipid and Fatty Acids in Snack-Seed Pumpkin” (https://www.scipress.com/ILNS.72.1)
The second step
It is time to mark the white gaps in the literature after conducting observe. Firstly authors show the progress, achievements in the area of investigation. After that they define some peculiarities of findings that have not been done earlier, what problems are still uncertain. Let’s look to another example:
“There are some related works reported the preservation of tomato [28-32] but no specific observation has been reported yet for extending shelf life of post-harvest tomato treated with irradiated chitosan (40 kGy) solution in this manner.”
The third step
Conclude your introduction with the explanation how you research fills the gaps mentioned in the previous step. In other words formulate the aim of your study.
“This research was aimed to investigate the effect of several concentrations of irradiated chitosan coating on post-harvest tomato for extending shelf-life as well as evaluating the quality changed during its storage period at ambient temperature in an open condition.”
“Extension of Shelf-Life of Tomato Using Irradiated Chitosan and its Physical and Biochemical Characteristics” (https://www.scipress.com/ILNS.67.16)
Generally authors use standard phrases to summarize the goal of the investigation. For example:
“The purpose of this study is to
The aim of this study was to…
The goal of this study is to provide enhanced…
The main purpose of this study was to address the question of whether…” .
Guidelines for writing the second and the third steps
Next, we look in detail at the several techniques how to hog the readers with your topic for further reading of the whole article. Follow tips should help you to write an effective the second and the third steps. Let’s consider the examples with citations from the articles.
- Describe the importance and curiosity of the subject
“The previous research suggests an interesting correlation between A & B; therefore, my research will…”.
Evaluation of Natural Minerals (Zeolite and Bentonite) for Nitrogen Compounds Adsorption in Different Water Temperatures Suitable for Aquaculture (https://www.scipress.com/ILNS.71.34)
‘In freshwater for ammonium adsorption process, pH and water temperature are two important parameters. For ammonia adsorption and sustainable aquaculture applications, optimum results are obtained between approximately 6-8.5 pH and 10-27°C values [16, 17]. In this study, it was aimed to determine the effects of zeolite and bentonite on the ammonium adsorption at different temperatures.’
- Suggest a new point of view on this problem
“Although most experts in the field believe …., they have overlooked …. My research will ….”.
Foreign Direct Investment in the Function of Economic Development – Example of Selected Countries in the Western Balkans (https://www.scipress.com/ILSHS.79.1 P.1-15)
This view is shared by both professional public and many authors dealing with this issue. However, the starting points gave a somewhat different picture of the importance of foreign direct investment, thus making this research even more significant. Given the results that have been obtained in this analysis, it can be stated that this is an area which has not been given enough attention from the standpoint of scientific research; therefore, the results presented in this paper are very significant. Using the appropriate statistical methods, a certain step forward has been made in terms of understanding foreign direct investment and its impact on economic development of the countries that were analyzed, pointing out the scientific contribution of this research.’
- Present that the issue was disregarded, by other authors and you highlight it from a new point of view.
Fire-Resisting Composites Based on Polymer Matrix (https://www.scipress.com/IJET.14.1)
“Recent achievements in flame retardant development are represented by organometallic , e.g. ferrocene [18, 32-34], and organosilicon (e.g. silsesquioxane) [1, 35] compounds…
Still, quantitative dependencies between amount, chemical type of admixtures and properties related to fire safety of EMC till now are not revealed in detail. The purpose of this work is to study the dependencies between flammability, combustibility, fume evolution of EMC and amount and chemical type of fillers and admixtures.”
Next suggestions help you to make the Introduction interesting and readable.
- While making abbreviations firstly give a full expression and then write in the brackets its contraction.
- Use Passive or Active Present Simple Tense. It’s better to write this part in the present voice, not passive .
- Avoid off-putting and inconceivable moments, build up the evident sentences directing to the central issue and determining it .
- The sentences should be understandable, intriguing and inveigling that reader wants to look through all the text .
- Use the links to references in this part of the article to confirm the data obtained by other authors. They are usually formatted in the square brackets. Ideally you should pick out the literature sources from the publications for the recent 3-5 years .
And the last tip before writing this part build up a plan using three steps to make effective, brief and meaningful Introduction. We hope these suggestions will help you in the research work. Next time we will discuss the Materials and Methods section.
 A. Armağan How to write an introduction section of a scientific article? Turk J Urol. 39, 2013. – P. 8–9.
 Best Ways to Come up with Intriguing Opening Paragraph. Available: https://writemypaper4me.org/blog/research-paper-introduction
 How to write a research introduction. Available: https://www.wikihow.com/Write-a-Research-Introduction
 How to Write an Introduction of a Research Paper. Available: https://essay-lib.com/write-introduction-research-paper/
 J. Hesson How to Write the Introduction to a Research Paper. Available: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/how-write-introduction-research-paper-jim-hesson/
 M. Shuttleworth How to Write an Introduction. Available: https://explorable.com/how-to-write-an-introduction.
 Research Paper Introduction Example: Academic Writing Insight. Available: https://edusson.com/blog/research-paper-introduction-example
 University of Southern California Organizing your social sciences research Paper: 4. The Introduction. Available: http://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/introduction
 How to Write an Abstract. Available: https://www.wikihow.com/Write-an-Abstract
 Writing Research Paper Introductions Undergraduate writing center (pdf format). Available: https://wp.ucla.edu