We are continuing the cycle of articles about creating scientific paper. Today we are going to discuss the Results. The main meaning of this part is to reveal the basic goal of the article. Notwithstanding the fact, the scientific language is strict, data should be presented clearly, brightly, fully but without any bias allowing readers to obtain valuable information from the article.
This part should only show the obtained results, without deep explanations, that are more suitable for the Discussion. The description of the collected data shall be written in a certain order as well as in the past tense, active or passive voices.
Results in and of themselves do not evidence anything. You should keep in mind that research outputs may only justify or decline some scientific point. At the same time clarification of results helps you to grasp the issue internally, to divide it into the parts, and to estimate research problem from different sides.
As now we are sharing with you some tips how to avoid tricks of this part to create an effective Results. Let’s start with general tips:
- Ensure the Result section from the goals of the article and connect with a conclusion
To interpret your findings in the Discussion you should be sure that your data in the Results section are presented accordingly to the goals and claims of the article. In the same way show the data with a view of proper confirmation to the conclusions, because Goals and Claims, Results and Discussion, as well as Conclusions are strongly linked with each other .
- Be brief and concise
The size of this part depends on the number and types of revealed data. Be brief, exploiting visualization blocks, like table, figures and plots to show results in a favorable light. As usual, researches use statistical analyses to adapt their results for further discussion. That’s why the previous elaboration of the findings is the key aspect of their presentation. It’s improper to use raw data in the main part of the article. However, if they are essential for your investigation, you may place them like an appendix, at the end of the paper.
- Present only important experimental data from your research
Next valuable moment of this part is that you should present only essential data from your investigation that will be interesting to the readers . Additionally, the key milestones you presented in the previous Introduction section should be connected, with your results. A fit principle is to re-read the Introduction part of the article after you have assembled your Results to guaranty that you revealed enough basic information to the reader to understand your findings in this section and then in the Discussion.
Two ways of showing and arranging the results are used to present the scientific outputs among a variety of different subjects .
1) Provide explanation after presentation of the results
For example, you have found several trends among your variables, that X correlated with the factor Y but does not with the factor Z. You shall mark this in the results section, but without reflection about this trend. All necessary disclosures, you should give in the following Discussion section.
2) Describe the results of each stage of the investigation followed by strict annotation
This approach is more usual to the longer articles with several issues and huge amount of data. In this case, after the narration of the midway results you should add an explanation, and then at the end of the Results section summarize all descriptions and the elucidations of obtaining findings.
Along the same lines, you may find several tips on how to omit the key pitfalls of the Results section:
- Describe your outputs, but without profound estimation of data or wide listing of references. Leave all these things to your following section.
- Present and analyze data, elucidate to the reader what it means according to your research issue. In this case paralleling or setting off your results with other scientific outputs lends credence to your data . You may straighten out the results, for example, “It is due to…” or give some explanations and compare with literature sources. Thus, you pave the way to your Discussion section where give the complete substantiation of your findings.
- Compare experimental data with control ones, accordingly to the methods section, for instance, in Biological and Medicinal sciences.
- Consider the data that contradict the main hypothesis of the article. Record them with further explanations in the Discussion part, where clarify why this negative data appear during your investigation. Mind you, that negative results and their describing will enable you to create more intriguing next section.
- Present data only once. If you need to repeat something the Discussion provides you with that opportunity.
- Be reliable in describing your findings. General or nondescript phrases are not effective during creating this part. It is better to avoid expressions like these “appeared to be greater or lesser than…”, or “demonstrates promising trends that….” .
- Divide the Results into heads and subheads if the Result section continues in several pages. However, the extent of this part depends on the amount of your data and the whole structure of the article. Results may be longer or shorter than the Discussion section in the various fields of study.
- Choose the most accurately suitable visualization technique of your results: in words, tables, plots or equations regarding with the subject and the field of the study . Remember that the text always remains as the basic part in the article. The illustrations just complete and help to make the text easier for an understanding.
Following tips about using non-textual blocks shall help you to make Results visual and outstanding:
- There are two ways of disclosing the figures, plots, tables etc. You may place them inside of the text of the Results or behind it at the end of the article. However, frequently researchers use the first approach. Keep in mind that you should choose only one way to place non-textual elements: in or out of the main text.
- List all visualizing blocks in the proper order and provide with captions. You always should format your figures, tables, plots etc. in connection with the Manual for Authors of the journal where you are going to submit the article and follow one style for all blocks through all the text.
- Before placing each visualizing element obviously write several sentences about it and refer to each block, e.g. Table 1, Fig. 1, Figure 2.
“As it is seen in Fig. 1, ….”
” ….at the upper sites total zooplankton abundance reached 97% (Fig. 2).”
“The results of this study (Figs. 2–3) show that….”
- Each visualizing block should have captions, and if it is necessary, completed by description. The figures, plots, chats, as usual, are subscribed after the block, while the caption to tables is placed before it.
The Results section at any subject of study should include next essential parts:
- An introductory text about your findings by expressing in another way the main goal of the research that confirms the target of your investigation.
- A run-up of your main results ordered in a proper course ensures your Methods and Materials part.
- The text and data should be supported with visualization blocks, likes of figures, photos,
- Give arranged write-up of your results, pointing out the most appropriate data in your field of study. Keep in mind that not of all data you obtained during experiments are relevant to be highlighted in the Results section, only the most valuable ones.
In conclusion, we would like to emphasize that the Results section is the core of your article, reflecting the length of work on your research, so present your findings briefly, in substance, to show results in the best light and to intrigue the readers to know the end of your paper.
 How to write an APA Results Section. [Online] Available: https://www.verywellmind.com/how-to-write-a-results-section-2795727.
 E.D. Kallestinova, How to Write your first research paper, Yale J. Biol. Med. 84(3) (2011) 181–190.
 Organizing Academic Research Papers: 7. The Results. [Online] Available: https://library.sacredheart.edu/c.php?g=29803&p=185931.
 Common Mistakes in Research Writing: the Results Section. [Online] Available: https://wordvice.com/writing-results-section-tips-common-mistakes/.
 C.M. Elliott, Guidelines for Writing a Scientific Paper, University of Illinois, 2010. Available: https://physics.illinois.edu/people/Celia/SciWrite.pdf.